BOOK REVIEWS · JONATHAN EDWARDS · Jonathan Edwards

GOD THE BEST PORTION OF THE CHRISTIAN – Jonathan Edwards (1736)

Two hundred years after Calvin published his first edition of The jonathan-edwardsInstitutes, Jonathan Edwards preached a sermon about being content in God.  The title of the sermon was God the Best Portion of the Christian.  Edwards’s text is Psalm 73:25:

Whom have I in heaven but thee? and there is none upon earth that I desire besides thee.

The central truth is set forth at the beginning of the sermon, in deductive fashion: It is the spirit of a truly godly man, to prefer God before all other things, either in heaven or on earth.

Two propositions comprise this short sermon

1. A godly man prefers God before anything else in heaven.

Edwards presents the God-centered paradigm in this section by leading readers on the correct biblical path.  He notes, “Every godly man hath his heart in heaven; his affections are mainly set on what is to be had there.  Heaven is his chosen country and inheritance.”

The godly man sets his affection on beauty, which is to say his heart is oriented to God and the things of God.  “Now the main reason why the godly man hath his heart thus to heaven,” writes Edwards, “is because God is there; that is the palace of the Most High.  It is the place where God is gloriously present, where his love is gloriously manifested, where the godly may be with him, see him as he is, and love, serve, praise, and enjoy him perfectly.”

2. It is the temper of a godly man to prefer God before all other things on the earth.

The highest priority for the follower of Christ, according to Edwards is on the Triune God.  Three points highlight the heart of the Puritan preacher:

  1. The saint prefers that enjoyment of God, for which he hopes hereafter, to anything in the world.
  2. The saints prefer what of God may be obtained in this life before all things in the world.
  3. The saints prefer what he hath already of God before anything in this world.

Application

As usual, Edwards concludes his sermon with several points of application.  Five penetrating questions are posed:

  1. What is it which chiefly makes you desire to go to heaven when you die?
  2. If you could avoid death and might have your free choice, would you choose to live always in this world without God, rather than in his time to leave the world, in order to be with him?
  3. Do you prefer Christ to all others as the way to heaven?
  4. If you might go to heaven in what course you please, would you prefer to all others the way of a strict walk with God?
  5. Were you to spend your eternity in this world, would you choose rather to live in mean and low circumstances with the gracious presence of God, to live forever in earthly prosperity without him?

Jonathan Edwards offers perspective and godly wisdom in a sermon that directed his 18th-century hearers heavenward and continues to beckon followers of Christ to the Celestial City.

BOOK REVIEWS · Calvinism · JONATHAN EDWARDS · Jonathan Edwards

True Grace, Distinguished From the Experience of Devils – Jonathan Edwards (1752)

Jonathan_Edwards_engravingOn September 28, 1752, Jonathan Edwards was invited to preach a sermon before the Presbyterian Synod of New York.  His son-in-law, Aaron Burr (who had recently married his daughter Esther) was the president of the College of New Jersey and undoubtedly had an influence in the invitation that Edwards received.

James 2:19 is the text that Edwards utilizes – You believe that God is one; you do that well.  Even the demons believe – and shudder!

Doctrine

Nothing in the mind of man, that is of the same nature with what the devils experience, or are the subjects of, is any sure sign of saving grace.

Edwards essentially argues this: there is no sign of grace in demons.  Three propositions drive the doctrine which he presents.

  1. The devils have no degree of holiness: and therefore, those things, which are nothing beyond what they are the subjects of, cannot be holy experiences.
  2. The devils are not only absolutely without all true holiness, but they are not so much as the subjects of any common grace.
  3. It is unreasonable to suppose, that a person’s being in any respect as the devil is, should be a certain sign, that he is very unlike, and opposite to him; and hereafter, shall not have his part with him.

Edwards includes a series of improvements or inferences which assist his hearers and instruct them in the Christian faith.

First, Nothing that damned men do, or ever will experience, can be any sure sign of grace.

Second, No degree of speculative knowledge of things of religion, is any certain sign of saving grace.

Third, For persons merely to yield to a speculative assent to the doctrines of religion as true, is no certain evidence of a state of grace.

Fourth, [Converted men] have been the subjects of very great distress and terrors of mind, through apprehensions of God’s wrath, and fears of damnation.

Fifth, It may be further inferred from the doctrine, that no work of the law on men’s hearts, in conviction of guilt, and just desert of punishment, is a sure argument, that a person has been savingly converted. 

Sixth, It is no certain sign of grace, that persons have earnest desires and longings after salvation.

Seventh, Persons who have no grace may have a great apprehension of an external glory.

Edwards demonstrates in stroke after stroke how and why the devils lack saving grace.  He applies his thesis to the hearts of men as noted above.  Once again, the Puritan divine accurately diagnoses the human condition apart from grace.  But he concludes by contrasting the graceless state of devils with the gracious state of a person who trusts Christ: “By this, above all other things, do men glorify God.   By this, above all other things, do the saints shine as lights in the world, and are blessings to mankind.”    It is here where Edwards draws his readers and those who would listen to this sermon – to the fountain of grace which never ends!

 

BOOK REVIEWS · JONATHAN EDWARDS · Jonathan Edwards

The Peace Which Christ Gives His True Followers – Jonathan Edwards (1750)

Jonathan_Edwards_engravingImagine shepherding a congregation of people, only to find yourself
expelled from the church.  That is exactly what happened to Jonathan Edwards – America’s greatest intellectual.  Within a month of his dismissal, Edwards pens a series of sermons – one of which is entitled The Peace Which Christ Gives His True Followers.

The Text: John 14:27

Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you.  Not as the world gives do I give to you.  Let not your hearts be troubled, neither let them be afraid.

The Doctrine

That peace which Christ, when he died, left as a legacy to all his true saints, is very diverse from all those things which the men of this world bequeath to their children when they die.

It is not surprising that Edwards is inclined to turn to John 14:27, especially in light of the recent events that turned his world upside down.  Three central propositions support the doctrine.

1. Christ at his death, made over the blessings of the new covenant to believers, as it were in a will or testament.

Edwards clearly shows how Christ promised not only peace but joy and grace and victory over the world.  Indeed, we have a delightful inheritance.

2. A great blessing that Christ in his testament hath bequeathed to true followers, is his peace.

Two things are granted to believers in this monumental promise.  First, Christ bestows true peace and comfort on every believer.  Each believer experiences peace with God, peace with one another, and peace within themselves.    Edwards notes, “By these means true saints are brought into a state of freedom from condemnation and all the curses of the law of God” (Rom. 8:34).

Second, Christ bestows his peace to his followers: “So Christ’s true disciples, though in the world they have tribulations, yet in God they have peace.”

3. This legacy of Christ to his true disciples is very diverse from all that the men of the world ever leave to their children when they die.

Edwards assures believers that Christ’s peace differs from worldly pleasures in four specific ways.

  • Christ’s peace is a reasonable peace and rest of soul.
  • Christ’s peace is a virtuous and holy peace.
  • Christ’s peace infinitely differs from the world, in that it is unfailing and eternal peace.

Application

Edwards urges believers to cling to Christ and make good use of the peace he gives so freely.  He urges unbelievers to receive the free offer of Christ or suffer the temporal and eternal consequences: “As long as you continue to reject those offers and invitations of Christ, and continue in a Christless condition, you never will enjoy any true peace or comfort; but in whatever circumstances you are, you will be miserable.”

Edwards choice of John 14:27 is certainly no surprise.  His resolute handling of the text is no less bewildering, given his gospel-centered track-record as a pastor.  The remarkable thing about this sermon is that Edwards forges into the future, unhindered by life-altering circumstances.  This is an example of a Christ-exalting hope and a Christ-satisfied faith!

Hearken, therefore, to the friendly counsel that is given you this day: turn your feet into the way of peace; forsake the foolish and live.  Forsake those things which are no other than the devil’s baits, and seek after this excellent peace and rest of Jesus Christ, that peace of God which passes all understanding.

BOOK REVIEWS · Calvinism · JONATHAN EDWARDS · Jonathan Edwards

True Grace, Distinguished From the Experience of Devils – Jonathan Edwards (1752)

Jonathan_Edwards_engravingOn September 28, 1752, Jonathan Edwards was invited to preach a sermon before the Presbyterian Synod of New York.  His son-in-law, Aaron Burr (who had recently married his daughter Esther) was the president of the College of New Jersey and undoubtedly had an influence in the invitation that Edwards received.

James 2:19 is the text that Edwards utilizes – You believe that God is one; you do that well.  Even the demons believe – and shudder!

Doctrine

Nothing in the mind of man, that is of the same nature with what the devils experience, or are the subjects of, is any sure sign of saving grace.

Edwards essentially argues this: there is no sign of grace in demons.  Three propositions drive the doctrine which he presents.

  1. The devils have no degree of holiness: and therefore, those things, which are nothing beyond what they are the subjects of, cannot be holy experiences.
  2. The devils are not only absolutely without all true holiness, but they are not so much as the subjects of any common grace.
  3. It is unreasonable to suppose, that a person’s being in any respect as the devil is, should be a certain sign, that he is very unlike, and opposite to him; and hereafter, shall not have his part with him.

Edwards includes a series of improvements or inferences which assist his hearers and instruct them in the Christian faith.

First, Nothing that damned men do, or ever will experience, can be any sure sign of grace.

Second, No degree of speculative knowledge of things of religion, is any certain sign of saving grace.

Third, For persons merely to yield to a speculative assent to the doctrines of religion as true, is no certain evidence of a state of grace.

Fourth, [Converted men] have been the subjects of very great distress and terrors of mind, through apprehensions of God’s wrath, and fears of damnation.

Fifth, It may be further inferred from the doctrine, that no work of the law on men’s hearts, in conviction of guilt, and just desert of punishment, is a sure argument, that a person has been savingly converted. 

Sixth, It is no certain sign of grace, that persons have earnest desires and longings after salvation.

Seventh, Persons who have no grace may have a great apprehension of an external glory.

Edwards demonstrates in stroke after stroke how and why the devils lack saving grace.  He applies his thesis to the hearts of men as noted above.  Once again, the Puritan divine accurately diagnoses the human condition apart from grace.  But he concludes by contrasting the graceless state of devils with the gracious state of a person who trusts Christ: “By this, above all other things, do men glorify God.   By this, above all other things, do the saints shine as lights in the world, and are blessings to mankind.”    It is here where Edwards draws his readers and those who would listen to this sermon – to the fountain of grace which never ends!

 

BOOK REVIEWS · JONATHAN EDWARDS · Jonathan Edwards

The Preciousness of Time – Jonathan Edwards (1734)

Time is a precious commodity that must be treasured.  Such is the argument in jonathan-edwardsJonathan Edward’s piece entitled, The Preciousness of Time and the Importance of Redeeming It.

The subject of time was no stranger to Edwards.  He thought about the “improvement” of time often.  Even in his famous 70 resolutions, he addressed the matter of time.

Resolution # 5

Resolved, never to lose one moment of time; but improve it the most

profitable way I possibly can.

It would serve us well, then, to consider the precious matter of time from Jonathan Edwards’ perspective.

Section 1: Why Time is Precious

Jonathan Edwards states four reasons why time is precious.

  1. Because a happy or miserable eternity depends on the good or ill improvement of it.
  2. Time is very short, which is another thing that renders it very precious.
  3. Time ought to be esteemed by us very precious, because we are uncertain of its continuance.
  4. Time is very precious, because when it is past, it cannot be recovered.

Edwards argues in respect to to time, “…When once that [time] is gone, it is gone for ever; no pains; no cost will recover it.”  So typical is this eternal perspective that flows so freely from the pen of the Northampton preacher.  Tragically, many Christ-followers are not following the counsel of this godly man as they squander their time with worldly pursuits.  He reminds us, “Eternity depends on the improvement of time; but when once the time of life is gone, when once death is come, we have no more to do with time; there is no possibility of obtaining the restoration of it or another space in which to prepare for eternity.”

Section 2: Reflections of Time Past

In section 2, Edwards encourages believers to reflect on time which has been granted in order to prepare for eternity.  Indeed, the argument goes, “Your future eternity depends on the improvement of time.”  He challenges readers, “How have you let the precious golden sands of your glass run?”

Section 3: Who Are Chiefly Deserving of Reproof From the Subject of the Preciousness of Time

Edwards begins section three with a discussion of how people waste their time: “There is nothing more precious, and yet nothing of which men are more prodigal.”  He demonstrates the kinds of people are who reproved for their negligence in this area.

  1. Those who spend a great part of their time in idleness.
  2. They are reproved by this doctrine who spend their time in wickedness, who do not merely spend their time in doing nothing to any good purpose but spend it to ill purposes.
  3. Those are reproved by this doctrine, who spend their time only in worldly pursuits, neglecting their souls.

Section 4: An Exhortation to Improve Time

“Time is money.”  So goes the conventional wisdom of the day.  Edwards essentially agrees as he argues, “If you have a right conception of these things, you will be more choice of your time than of the most fine gold.”  He exhorts readers with four  bold propositions:

  1. You are accountable to God for your time.
  2. Consider how much time you have lost already.
  3. Consider how time is sometimes valued by those who are come near to the end of it.
  4. Consider what a value we may conclude is set upon time by those who are past the end of it.

Section 5: Advice Respecting the Improvement of Time

Edwards concludes his piece by offering three encouragements with respect to time.

  1. Improve the present time without any delay.
  2. Be especially careful to improve those parts of time which are most precious.
  3. Improve well your time of leisure from worldly business.

The notion of “improving” time is seen throughout the writings of Jonathan Edwards.  He gave a great deal of thought to it and chose to live wisely in light of his discoveries.  Indeed, Jonathan Edwards sought to “live with all his might unto the Lord.”  By God’s grace he accomplished resolution # 5: Resolved, never to lose one moment of time; but improve it the most profitable way I possibly can.

“Therefore, spend not such opportunities unprofitably, nor in such a manner that you will not be able to give a good account thereof to God.  Waste them not away wholly in unprofitable visits, or useless diversions or amusements.”

– Jonathan Edwards

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOOK REVIEWS · JONATHAN EDWARDS · Jonathan Edwards

Wrath Upon the Wicked To the Uttermost – Jonathan Edwards (1735)

The sermon is dated May, 1735.  Jonathan Edwards makes his way into the pulpit to Jonathan_Edwards_engravingread his manuscript – which was his consistent habit.  The full title of the sermon is When the Wicked Shall Have Filled Up the Measure of Their Sin, Wrath Will Come Upon Them to the Uttermost.  The text that the preacher from Northampton utilizes is 1 Thessalonians 2:16 – “To fill up their sins alway; for the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost.”

Before Edwards wrestles with the doctrinal implications, he makes two important observations:

1. To what effect was the heinous wickedness and obstinacy of the Jews, viz. to fill up their sins.

2. The punishment of their wickedness: “The wrath is come upon them to the uttermost.”  There is a connection between the measure of men’s sin, and the measure of punishment.  When they have filled up the measure of their sin, then is filled up the measure of God’s wrath.  Edwards observes, “God often punishes men very dreadfully in this world; but in hell “wrath comes on them to the uttermost.”  He alerts his congregation to the certainty of this punishment: “For though the punishment was then future, yet it is spoken of as present: ‘The wrath is come upon them to the uttermost.'”

Edwards repeats his doctrine and continues by setting forth 3 primary propositions.

Doctrine

When those that continue in sin shall have filled up the measure of their sin, then wrath will come upon them to the uttermost.

Proposition #1:

There is a certain measure that God hath set to the sin of every wicked man.

Edwards explains, “But sometimes the reason why God lets them alone is, because they have not filled up the measure of their sins.  When they live in dreadful wickedness, they are but filling up the measure which God hath limited for them.”  In other words, each person shall live until they reach the tipping point.

Proposition # 2:

While men continue in sin, they are filling the measure set them.

Proposition # 3:

When once the measure of their sins is filled up, then wrath will come upon them to the uttermost.  God will then wait no longer upon them.

Edwards notes, “Now is the day of grace, and the day of patience, which they spend in filling up their sins; but when their sins shall be full, then will come the day of wrath, the day of the fierce anger of God.”

God’s wrath is never fully exerted against wicked men while in this world but once they have filled up the measure of their sins, wrath will come upon them to the uttermost as Paul says in 1 Thessalonians 2:16.  Edwards makes five important observations about God’s wrath which will be unleashed on unregenerate men when they reach what I call the “tipping point.”

1. Wrath will come upon them without any restraint or moderation in the degree of it.

“The wrath of God will be poured out like fire.  He will come forth, not only in anger, but in the fierceness of his anger; he will execute wrath with power, so as to show what his wrath is, and make his power known.  There will be nothing to alleviate his wrath; his heavy wrath will lie on them, without any thing to lighten the burden, or to keep off, in any measure, the full weight of it from pressing the soul.”

“Then shall wicked men know that God is the Lord; they shall know how great that majesty is which they have despised, and how dreadful that threatened wrath is which they have so little regarded.  Then shall come on wicked men that punishment which they deserve.”

2. Wrath will then be executed without any merciful circumstances.

Edwards is quick to point out that in this life, God shows forbearance with sinners; he is merciful.  “But in hell there will be no more exercises of divine patience.”

3. Wrath will be so executed, as to perfect the work to which wrath tends, viz. utterly to undo the subject of it.

“The soul will be, as it were utterly crushed; the wrath will be wholly intolerable.  It must sink, and will utterly sink, and will have no more strength to keep itself from sinking, than a worm would have to keep itself from being crushed under the weight of a mountain.”

4. When persons shall have filled up the measure of their sin, that wrath will come upon them which is eternal.

Edwards provides his congregation with divine perspective and adds, “Nothing can be longer than eternity.”

5. When persons shall have filled up the measure of their sin, then wrath will come upon them to the uttermost of what is threatened.  Sin is an infinite evil; and the punishment which God hath threatened against it is very dreadful.

Application

Jonathan Edwards jumps immediately to application and draws the attention of his congregation to three concluding points.  He is especially concerned to warn natural men to flee from sin!

1. Under what great means and advantages you continue in sin.

Edwards challenges adults who grew up in Northampton and were warned repeatedly to flee from sin.  Some have even had what Edwards refers to as “awakenings,” but they continue in sin.  He refers to some congregants who “narrowly escaped death by dangerous accidents” yet they continue to persist in their sin.

2. How dreadful the wrath of God is, when it is executed to the uttermost.  To make you in some measure sensible of that, I desire you to consider whose wrath it is.  The wrath of a king is the roaring of a lion; but this is the wrath of Jehovah, the Lord God Omnipotent.

3. Consider, you know not what wrath God may be about to execute upon wicked men in this world.

Edwards concludes with a stern warning: “Therefore it behooves all to haste and flee for their lives, to get into a safe condition, to get into Christ; then they need not fear, though the earth be removed, and the mountains carried into the midst of the sea; though the waters thereof roar and be troubled; though the mountains shake with the swelling thereof: for God will be their refuge and strength; they need not be afraid of evil tidings; their hearts may be fixed, trust in the Lord.”

Jonathan Edwards reminds us of the importance of faith in Christ and the dreadful consequences of anyone who refuses to turn from their sin and flee to him for forgiveness.  His preaching may sound strange to the postmodern ear.  His theology may be uncomfortable.  His tone may appear sharp and uninviting.  But these concerns only indicate the great height from which we have fallen.

BOOK REVIEWS · JONATHAN EDWARDS · Jonathan Edwards

The Most High A Prayer Hearing God – Jonathan Edwards (1735)

jonathan-edwardsPsalm 65:2 is Edwards text in the winter of 1735, January 8.

O you who hears prayer, to you shall all flesh come.

Doctrine – It is the character of the Most High, that he is a God who answers prayer.

Four headings drive the sermon.

1. The Most High is a God that Hears Prayer

Though he is infinitely above all, and stands in no need of creatures; yet he is graciously pleased to take a merciful notice of poor worms in the dust.

Edwards argues that God not only accepts the supplications of all the saints; he does so willingly with favor.  He adds, “While they are praying, he gives them sweet views of his glorious grace, purity, sufficiency, and sovereignty; and enables them, with great quietness, to rest in him, to leave themselves and their prayers with him, submitting to his will, and trusting in his grace and faithfulness.”

2. He is Eminently Such a God

Edwards provides several examples of how God answers prayer:

  • In his giving such free access to him by prayer.
  • That God is eminently of this character, appears in his hearing prayer so readily.
  • That the Most High is eminently one that hears prayer, appears by his giving so liberally in answer to prayer.
  • That God is eminently of this character, appears by the greatness of the things which he hath often done in answer to prayer.
  • This truth appears, in that God is, as it were, overcome by prayer.

3. Reasons for the Doctrine

A crucial point that Edwards makes is that God answers prayer because “he is a God of infinite grace and mercy.”

  • He hath by his blood made atonement for sin; so that our guilt need not stand in the way, as a separating wall between God and us, and that our sins might not be a cloud through which our prayers cannot pass.
  • Christ, by his obedience, has purchased this privilege, viz, that the prayers of those who believe in him should be heard.
  • Christ enforces the prayers of his people, by his intercession at the right hand of God in heaven.

Application

Edwards draws out many practical applications, the chief of which alerts the saints to make good use of prayer; to be prayer warriors in this wicked age.

“Seeing we have such a prayer-hearing God as we have heard, let us be much employed in the duty of prayer: let us pray with all prayer and supplication: let us live prayerful lives, continuing instant in prayer, watching thereuto with all perseverance; praying always, without ceasing, earnestly, and not fainting.”

 

BOOK REVIEWS · JONATHAN EDWARDS · Jonathan Edwards

The Preciousness of Time – Jonathan Edwards (1734)

Time is a precious commodity that must be treasured.  Such is the argument in jonathan-edwardsJonathan Edward’s piece entitled, The Preciousness of Time and the Importance of Redeeming It.

The subject of time was no stranger to Edwards.  He thought about the “improvement” of time often.  Even in his famous 70 resolutions, he addressed the matter of time.

Resolution # 5

Resolved, never to lose one moment of time; but improve it the most

profitable way I possibly can.

It would serve us well, then, to consider the precious matter of time from Jonathan Edwards’ perspective.

Section 1: Why Time is Precious

Jonathan Edwards states four reasons why time is precious.

  1. Because a happy or miserable eternity depends on the good or ill improvement of it.
  2. Time is very short, which is another thing that renders it very precious.
  3. Time ought to be esteemed by us very precious, because we are uncertain of its continuance.
  4. Time is very precious, because when it is past, it cannot be recovered.

Edwards argues in respect to to time, “…When once that [time] is gone, it is gone for ever; no pains; no cost will recover it.”  So typical is this eternal perspective that flows so freely from the pen of the Northampton preacher.  Tragically, many Christ-followers are not following the counsel of this godly man as they squander their time with worldly pursuits.  He reminds us, “Eternity depends on the improvement of time; but when once the time of life is gone, when once death is come, we have no more to do with time; there is no possibility of obtaining the restoration of it, or another space in which to prepare for eternity.”

Section 2: Reflections of Time Past

In section 2, Edwards encourages believers to reflect on time which has been granted in order to prepare for eternity.  Indeed, the argument goes, “Your future eternity depends on the improvement of time.”  He challenges readers, “How have you let the precious golden sands of your glass run?”

Section 3: Who Are Chiefly Deserving of Reproof From the Subject of the Preciousness of Time

Edwards begins section three with a discussion of how people waste their time: “There is nothing more precious, and yet nothing of which men are more prodigal.”  He demonstrates the kinds of people are who reproved for their negligence in this area.

  1. Those who spend a great part of their time in idleness.
  2. They are reproved by this doctrine who spend their time in wickedness, who do not merely spend their time in doing nothing to any good purpose, but spend it to ill purposes.
  3. Those are reproved by this doctrine, who spend their time only in worldly pursuits, neglecting their souls.

Section 4: An Exhortation to Improve Time

“Time is money.”  So goes the conventional wisdom of the day.  Edwards essentially agrees as he argues, “If you have a right conception of these things, you will be more choice of your time than of the most fine gold.”  He exhorts readers with four  bold propositions:

  1. You are accountable to God for your time.
  2. Consider how much time you have lost already.
  3. Consider how time is sometimes valued by those who are come near to the end of it.
  4. Consider what a value we may conclude is set upon time by those who are past the end of it.

Section 5: Advice Respecting the Improvement of Time

Edwards concludes his piece by offering three encouragements with respect to time.

  1. Improve the present time without any delay.
  2. Be especially careful to improve those parts of time which are most precious.
  3. Improve well your time of leisure from worldly business.

The notion of “improving” time is seen throughout the writings of Jonathan Edwards.  He gave a great deal of thought to it and chose to live wisely in light of his discoveries.  Indeed, Jonathan Edwards sought to “live with all his might unto the Lord.”  By God’s grace he accomplished resolution # 5: Resolved, never to lose one moment of time; but improve it the most profitable way I possibly can.

“Therefore, spend not such opportunities unprofitably, nor in such a manner that you will not be able to give a good account thereof to God.  Waste them not away wholly in unprofitable visits, or useless diversions or amusements.”

– Jonathan Edwards

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOOK REVIEWS · Calvinism · JONATHAN EDWARDS · Jonathan Edwards

WICKED MEN USEFUL IN THEIR DESTRUCTION ONLY (1744) – Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan_Edwards_engravingThe sermon is dated, July 1744.  Jonathan Edwards is thirty-one years of age.  The title of the message is Wicked Men Useful in Their Destruction Only.  The text is Ezekiel 15:2-4.

Doctrine

If men bring forth no fruit to God, they are wholly useless, unless in their destruction.

Edwards seeks to prove his doctrine with four points.

  1. That there can be but two ways in which man can be useful, viz. either in acting, or in being acted upon.
  2. That man can no otherwise be useful actively than by bringing forth fruit to God; serving God and living to his glory.
  3. That if he bring not forth fruit to God, there is no other way in which he can be passively useful, but in being destroyed.
  4. In that way he may be useful without bearing fruit.

The key to this sermon is perspective.  Jonathan Edwards bring a God-centered perspective that readjusts the worldview of the saints.  One example is Edwards’ encouragement to Christ-followers as they gaze upon the damned in eternity future:

When the saints in heaven shall look upon the damned in hell, it will serve to give them a greater sense of their own happiness.  When they shall see how dreadful the anger of God is, it will make them the more prize his love.  They will rejoice the more, that they are not the objects of God’s anger, but of his favor; that they are not the subjects of his dreadful wrath, but are treated as children, to dwell in the everlasting embraces of his love.  The misery of the damned will give them a greater sense of the distinguishing grace and love of God to them, that he should from all eternity set his love on them, and make so great a difference between them and others who are of the same species, and have deserved no worse of God than they.  What a great sense will this give them of the wonderful grace of God to them!  and how will it heighten their praises!  with how much greater admiration and exultation of soul will they sing of the free and sovereign grace of God to them!

Application

Four thoughts are offered by way of application by Jonathan Edwards:

First —We may learn, how just and righteous God is in the destruction of those who bring forth no fruit to him.

Second — This subject ought to put you upon examining yourselves, whether you be not wholly useless creatures.  

Third — Another use of this subject may be of conviction and humiliation to those who never have brought forth any fruit to God.

Fourth — May people bring forth fruit to God’s glory.

In typical Edwardsean form, the Puritan preacher calls people to fulfill the reason for their creation, namely – to glorify the great God of the universe!

 

BOOK REVIEWS · Ecclesiology · JONATHAN EDWARDS · Jonathan Edwards · Leadership

THE NATURE AND END OF EXCOMMUNICATION – Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan_Edwards_engravingThe Nature and End of Excommunication is a timely and practical sermon.  For many churches in our generation simply refuse to exercise church discipline on the unrepentant.  This act of passivity is not only cause for grave concern; it is a violation of Scripture.

Edwards utilizes 1 Cor. 5:11 as his text:

But now I am writing to you not to associate with anyone who bears the name of brother if he is guilty of sexual immorality or greed, or is an idolater, reviler, drunkard, or swindler—not even to eat with such a one.” (1 Cor. 5:11, ESV)

DoctrineThose members of the visible Christian church who are visibly wicked, ought not be tolerate in the church, but should be excommunicated.

Edwards explains and articulates three main headings which support the doctrine.

1. The Nature of Excommunication

Edwards wastes no time explaining the essence of excommunication: “It is a punishment executed in the name and according to the will of Christ, whereby a person who hath heretofore enjoyed the privileges of a member of the visible church of Christ, is cast out of the church and delivered unto Satan” (c.f. 2 Cor. 2:6).

Ultimately, church discipline is meant for the good of the person in question and seeks their repentance and restoration to the body of Christ.  Edwards, adds, “Excommunication itself is to be performed as an act of benevolence.  We should seek their good by it; and it is to be used as a means of their eternal salvation.”

2. The Proper Subjects of Excommunication

Those who walk through the process of excommunication are the “visibly wicked.”  Two things mark such a person:

  • By gross sin 
  • By remaining impenitent in their sin

3. The End of Excommunication

Three specific ends are delineated by Edwards:

  • That the church may be kept pure, and the ordinances of God not be defiled.
  • That others may be deterred from wickedness.
  • That the persons themselves may be reclaimed, and that their souls may be saved.

Application

5 points of application are set forth by the preacher from Northampton:

  1. That you tolerate visible wickedness in your members, you will greatly dishonor God, and our Lord Jesus Christ, the religion which you profess, the church in general, and yourselves in particular.
  2. Your own good loudly calls you to the same thing.  From what hath been already said, you see how liable you, as individuals, will be to catch the contagion, which is easily communicated by reason of the natural depravity, in a degree at least, remaining in the best of men.
  3. The good of those who are without should be another motive.
  4. Benevolence towards your offending brethren themselves, calls upon you to maintain discipline in all its parts.
  5. But the absolute authority of Christ ought to be sufficient in this case, if there were no other motive.

These powerful reminders should beckon every church to seriously consider the high calling of operating in a God-glorifying way.  Edwards wonders out loud, “Now, how can you be the true disciples of Christ, if you live in the neglect of these plain positive commands?”  He concludes, “If you strictly follow the rules of discipline instituted by Christ, you have reason to hope for his blessing; for he is wont to bless his own institutions, and to smile upon the means of grace which he hath appointed.”

In this short sermon, Edwards demonstrated the necessity of carrying out church discipline on unrepentant church members.  How very far are so many churches from this biblical model?  How long will it take to come in alignment with the teaching of Scripture?